he Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Kolkata but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Central Office is where the Governor sits and where policies are formulated.
Though originally privately owned, since nationalisation in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the Government of India.
The Preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as:
“to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage; to have a modern monetary policy framework to meet the challenge of an increasingly complex economy, to maintain price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth.”
Read more on https://rbi.org.in/Scripts/AboutusDisplay.aspx
In a country where a large section of the society is still poor, inclusive growth assumes great significance. Access to finance is essential for poverty alleviation and reducing income inequality. One of the core functions of the RBI, therefore, is to promote financial inclusion that leads to inclusive growth. As the central bank of a developing country, the responsibilities of the RBI also include the development of financial markets and institutions. Broadening and deepening of financial markets and increasing their liquidity and resilience, so that they can help allocate and absorb the risks entailed in financing India’s growth is a key objective of the RBI.